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Conserving Wax-Resin Lined Paintings

This research group contributes to the conservation of wax-resin lined paintings through research and education.

The lining of canvas paintings is a remedial conservation method meant to reinforce the original canvas support by attaching a new canvas to the original one. The adhesives used for this purpose and the method of application vary depending on when and where the lining takes place. In the Netherlands, since the middle of the nineteenth-century, paintings have been lined with an adhesive mixture composed of beeswax and natural resin. The method was invented in the Netherlands by Nicolaas Hopman (1794-1870) and his son Willem Anthonij (1828-1910). For this reason, wax-resin lining is commonly called the 'Dutch method'. Wax-resin lining not only aims to adhere a new canvas to the old one but also to fully impregnate the painting’s structure with the wax-resin adhesive by means of heat and pressure from a hot hand-held iron or a heated vacuum lining table.

Today wax-resin lining is rarely used. Nevertheless, painting conservators world-wide are confronted with the conservation of paintings that were wax-resin lined in the past. Restorations now take place while full insight into the effects of past linings on the material and physical characteristics of paintings is lacking. This is due to large lacunas in scientific research regarding the overall consequences of the technique for the present state of paintings. The research carried out by this research group aims to fill this gap.

More information can be found on the following website:


Dr. Emilie Froment

Members of the research group

Prof. dr. Klaas Jan van den Berg (UvA and Rijksdienst Cultureel Erfgoed)
Prof. dr. Maarten van Bommel (UvA)
Prof. dr. Ella Hendriks (UvA)

External members

Dr. Esther van Duijn (Rijksmuseum Amsterdam)
Dr. Margriet van Eikema Hommes (RCE and TU Delft)
Drs. Ysbrand Hummelen (RCE and UM)
Dr. Cecil Krarup-Andersen (Royal Danish School for Conservation)
Michel van de Laar (free-Lance paintings conservator, Amsterdam)
Mireille te Marvelde (Frans Hals Museum Haarlem)
Kate Seymour (Stichting Restauratie Atelier Limburg)
Saskia van Oudheusden (Van Gogh Museum Amsterdam)
Louise Wijnberg (free-Lance paintings conservator, Amsterdam)